McHenry’s Skyline Drive-In Theater

The drive-in theater was one of the iconic crazes of the 1950s. While the first drive-in was actually in Camden, New Jersey in 1933, the popularity of the drive-in didn’t take off until the 1950s. Drive-ins offered some things that their indoor counterparts didn’t. Overall, the atmosphere befitted its casual summertime setting. At a drive-in, you could bring a baby, smoke, dress more casually, and be much louder as the speakers hooked right up to your car.

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Ad appearing from August 30, 1951, edition of the McHenry Plaindealer.

McHenry didn’t get passed up in this popular trend. In July 1951, McHenry got its first drive-in theater, the Skyline. Owned by Roy Miller, the screen was listed as facing northwest, as opposed to now as it faces southeast. The Skyline was in the same location that the McHenry Outdoor is at today. The screen was 52’ x 70’ and was the only outdoor theater in the vicinity. It also had illuminated speaker posts and a refreshment stand. The illuminated speaker posts didn’t just offer the audio from the movie, but also served as a guide telling customers where to park. The snack bar offered BBQ burgers and pizza among other refreshments. By 1956, the Skyline had a 104’ long screen and was showing two movies nightly. In 1963, Roy Miller sold the Skyline to Stan Kohlberg of Chicago. At that time, Mr. Kohlberg owned eight other theaters and had three more under construction.

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Skyline Ad posted on Aug 4, 1960, edition of the McHenry Plaindealer.

While McHenry’s outdoor theater still stands, most weren’t so lucky. One big advantage indoor theaters had was profit. Indoor theaters weren’t dependent on the season or weather, therefore, they could play movies more frequently, thus make more money for movie studios. In the late 1950s there were about 4000 drive-ins, today there are about 400. Apparently, most drive-ins were “mom and pop” businesses that didn’t have people who wanted to take over the business when operators retired. Yet the McHenry Outdoor still stands today as a nostalgic glimpse of Americana.

*This article was inspired by the sign in the picture at the top taken last summer (2016). Sadly it seems to have been blown down this spring. 

Sources
“McHenry Will Have Drive-In Theater Soon.” McHenry Plaindealer 27 Jul. 1950: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 27 Mar 2017.
“Drive-In Theater Announces Official Opening on July 20.” McHenry Plaindealer 19 Jul. 1951: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 27 Mar 2017.
“Skyline Drive-In Advertisement.” McHenry Plaindealer 12 Jul. 1956: 4. Newspapers.com. Web. 27 Mar 2017.
“New Theater Owner.” McHenry Plaindealer 3 Jul. 1963: 5. Newspapers.com. Web. 27 Mar 2017.

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/the-history-of-the-drive-in-movie-theater-51331221/

Red Faber Pitches in McHenry

In the summer of 1935 St. Mary’s softball charity game proved to be a memorable one. It pitted teams from the McHenry Elderly Men and St. Mary’s Holy Name Society and featured a bonus game that between the Married Men vs. the Single Men.  People were really looking forward to the game as it featured Major League Baseball Hall of Famer, Red Faber. Faber spent over twenty years pitching for the White Sox and was a crucial part of the 1917 World Series team. The recently retired Faber owned a home in Pistakee Bay and was in town for the summer.
Red Faber
Photograph of Red Faber taken in 1917, from the Library or Congress.
The umpire was a famous wrestler of the time, Charles Peterson. Like Faber, Peterson was in town as he owned a vacation home in Pistakee Bay. It was thought that the event was to be so well attended that extra stands were built just for the game. The game did not disappoint as over 500 people were in attendance. Faber, who won 250 games in the major leagues, won 12 to 10 against the team led by St. Mary’s Msgr. Charles S. Nix. In the second game, the single men won against the married men, 9-8. Faber and Johnson weren’t the only big names playing in the game. Some names that played are still known in town today. Freund, Miller, Justen and Altoff just to name a few.

Sources
“Red Faber To Pitch” McHenry Plaindealer 25 Jul. 1935: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 7 Mar 2016.
“Red Faber Now A Local Resident” McHenry Plaindealer 1 Aug. 1935: 5. Newspapers.com. Web. 7 Mar 2016.

McHenry Electric Service Company

 

McHenry’s first venture into the electric world started in February 1908. Town leaders wanted to bring McHenry into the electronic age for some time, but this wasn’t as easy as one might think. Electric companies weren’t like the giant corporations that we have today. Many were start-ups, most of which failed. For example, towns would get electric service, only to lose it if the company supplying the electricity went out of business.

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Picture of the Buch Hotel from a Sanborn Map in 1912. The basement of the Buch Hotel was where the McHenry Electric Service Company was located.

In February of 1908, the town board started meeting with George Paige and Lloyd Howell to set up what would become the McHenry Electric Service Company. While the company was a start-up, both Paige and Howell had experience in the electric company business. They would set up and maintain the company’s equipment. This included setting up new lines, fixing broken equipment, and trimming trees that might damage electric wiring. The company’s headquarters was housed in the basement of the Buch Building (where the Old Bridge Tavern is today.) The electricity’s main source of power was a 50-horse gasoline powered motor. The village board was very excited to provide this new service to its citizens, as well as the vacationers who would be in town for the summer.

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Advertisement from July 1908 of McHenry Plaindealer.

By June of 1908, electric service was up and running. For those who took advantage of the new service, it was well received. The village set up six-foot tall posts with electric lights along the main streets of town. For whatever reason, price or convenience, the service didn’t take off. For a while, the McHenry Electric Service Company even offered to set up customers at the company’s expense. By the summer of 1909, the company came forward to the village board and stated they were not getting the patronage required to successfully run the business. In October, the McHenry Electric Service Company was put up for sale and McHenry looked as if it would spend the winter in the dark.

However, on November 1, 1909, the Illinois Lakes Light and Power Company took control of the business and equipment from the McHenry company. The Illinois Lakes’ company was much larger in scale, offering services in several locations, such as Mount Prospect, Cary, and Crystal Lake. The company was run by Edward Lake. Lake decided to run the electric company similar to a telephone company with lines connecting larger areas including running connections from town to town. It was a more ambitious plan than most electric service companies were running at that time. The Illinois Lakes Light and Power Company went on to become one of the largest electric companies in the state.

Sources

“An Ordinance” McHenry Plaindealer 19 Mar. 1908: 4. Newspapers.com. Web. 10 Feb 2017.
“Cement Foundations” McHenry Plaindealer 7 May 1908: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 10 Feb 2017.
“Electric Service Now In Buch Building” McHenry Plaindealer 16 Apr. 1908: 4. Newspapers.com. Web. 10 Feb 2017.
“Franchise Is Accepted” McHenry Plaindealer 12 Mar. 1908: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 10 Feb 2017.
“May Have Electric Lights” McHenry Plaindealer 27 Feb. 1908: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 10 Feb 2017.
“Plant Now In Operation” McHenry Plaindealer 4 Jun. 1908: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 10 Feb 2017.
“New Engine” McHenry Plaindealer 24 Dec. 1908: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 10 Feb 2017.
“Electric Tidbits” McHenry Plaindealer 14 May 1908: 4. Newspapers.com. Web. 10 Feb 2017.
“$1,000,000 Company” McHenry Plaindealer 18 Nov. 1909: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 10 Feb 2017.
“Company Changed Hands” McHenry Plaindealer 4 Nov. 1909: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 10 Feb 2017.
“McHenry’s Light Plant” McHenry Plaindealer 26 Apr. 1909: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 10 Feb 2017.
“More Lights” McHenry Plaindealer 5 Aug. 1909: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 10 Feb 2017.
“That Lighting Question” McHenry Plaindealer 7 Oct. 1909: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 10 Feb 2017.
“Line Reaches Out After Many Cities” McHenry Plaindealer 30 Nov. 1909: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 10 Feb 2017.

The Everett Phonograph & Music Store

The Everett Hunter Manufacturing Company was a staple in McHenry for many years. Everett Hunter’s boat making business started in 1889 when he immigrated to the US from England. In 1919, business was booming and it was decided that they would expand into producing phonographs as well. What put phonographs on the map was that they were designed with two needles, one for recording and one for playing music. This looked like a great industry for the Hunter Company to invest in.
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Advertisement from the Plaindealer on 3 Apr 1919.
In March 1919, the Everett Phonograph was introduced to the public. The Everett sold so well that the Hunter Company put out ads looking for workers to help construct them. Phonographs were interesting to make, as they required the mechanical components that made or recorded sound. However, these components were housed in attached cabinets to make them more attractive for people to have in their homes.
everett-music-store-ad-17-10-1920
Ad from Plaindealer on 7 Oct 1920
During the first ten months of production, the Everett was sold out of the warehouse at the Hunter Manufacturing Company. However, with business doing so well, the Everett Music Store was opened in January 1920. Located on Green Street, it was run by Everett Hunter Jr. This also opened the door for the business to sell other musical merchandise, mainly records. The music business took off. Sometime in 1921, the Hunter Manufacturing Company stopped making the Everett Phonograph and became a dealer for Brunswick Phonographs and merchandise. In 1922, the Everett Music Store expanded it’s location in McHenry and branched out, opening a store in Woodstock. The success was short-lived however, and by 1924 the Everett Music store was bought out by the Nye Music Store. Yet, for a short moment in history, McHenry had its own manufacturer of phonographs represented by the Everett Hunter Company.
Sources:
“Big Free Display” McHenry Plaindealer 6 Apr. 1922: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Change At Music Store” McHenry Plaindealer 17 Feb. 1921: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Drop In” McHenry Plaindealer 15 Jul. 1920: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Factory Needs Help” McHenry Plaindealer 1 Jan. 1920: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Free Concert At Boat Factory” McHenry Plaindealer 4 Dec. 1919: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Has Neat Quarters” McHenry Plaindealer 26 Feb. 1920: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Is Branching Out” McHenry Plaindealer 30 Nov. 1922: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Music Dealer In New Territory” McHenry Plaindealer 30 Jan. 1921: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Music Store Expands” McHenry Plaindealer 9 Jun. 1921: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“New Quarters For Music Store” McHenry Plaindealer 29 Jan. 1922: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Repairing Building” McHenry Plaindealer 29 Jan. 1920: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Saxophone Demonstration” McHenry Plaindealer 30 Mar. 1922: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Will Open Retail Store” McHenry Plaindealer 22 Jan. 1920: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.

McHenry’s 2nd City Hall

old-city-hall-1885-1960-ned-neumann-currently-own-it
Postcard of McHenry’s City Hall from ca. 1915.

During the early 1900s, McHenry was a bustling tourist town that attracted many people from the city and other local areas as a vacation spot. By 1911, it was becoming apparent to some citizens in the village of McHenry that the town hall no longer met the needs of its people. If the town was to grow it would need a more attractive and functional city hall. Other neighboring towns, such as Wauconda and Richmond, had recently built new town halls and some McHenry citizens felt McHenry needed to follow suit.

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Sanborn Map showing City Hall in 1898 next door to the new Landmark School.

The original city hall building had been a cheese factory from 1875 up until its renovation in 1885 as the village hall. It is interesting to note that even though McHenry was settled in 1834, it didn’t incorporate until 1872 and thus didn’t need a hall until then. During the spring and summer of 1911, the town government made plans to construct a building for about $9,000. Blueprints were drawn up with the new building consisting of a brick two-story structure. The new building would be put on a ballot and if passed, the town board would be able to take the money needed for construction out of the village’s treasury. Taxes wouldn’t need to be raised if the town would maintain its cash flow. However, on August 11, 1911, the town voted against constructing the new building by a decisive margin of 125-70.

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Sanborn Map showing City Hall and the Pump Station.

The contention stayed dormant for four years, until 1915, when the matter of a new building came to the forefront because of the city hall’s deterioration. The city sold the old village building, which was then razed in June 1915. The city fathers then found a nice solution for the new city hall. Instead of placing the construction of a new building on another ballot, the village compromised. The town’s old ice house & pump station were solidly built and the owner was willing to sell.  With some remodeling, the city council felt the ice house would make a fine village hall. Conveniently, it was located right next door to the old city hall. The city had a new terracotta front installed, a new sidewalk and new office furniture placed in the old ice house. The pump station, which would remain in use as the city’s water reservoir, was right next to the renovated building.  The modernized city hall was then ready for public use in September 1915. The updated city hall would serve admirably for fifty years until its replacement was constructed on Green Street in the 1970’s.

 

Sources:

“Population of McHenry” McHenry Plaindealer 27 Apr. 1911: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Need New City Hall” McHenry Plaindealer 27 Apr. 1911: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Vote On City Hall” McHenry Plaindealer 20 Jul. 1911: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“No New City Hall” McHenry Plaindealer 17 Aug. 1911: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Village Hall and Gym” McHenry Plaindealer 12 Feb. 1914: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Sealed Bids for Old City Hall” McHenry Plaindealer 6 May 1915: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Old Village Hall Sold” McHenry Plaindealer 20 May 1915: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Village Hall Talk” McHenry Plaindealer 20 May 1915: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“To Remodel Power House” McHenry Plaindealer 10 Jun. 1915: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Razing Old Hall” McHenry Plaindealer 17 Jun. 1915: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Work On City Hall Front” McHenry Plaindealer 29 Jul. 1915: 8. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Laying Brick” McHenry Plaindealer 26 Aug. 1915: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Cement Walk” McHenry Plaindealer 14 Oct. 1915: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Neat Municipal Building” McHenry Plaindealer 28 Oct. 1915: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“City Hall Front Finished” McHenry Plaindealer 9 Sep. 1915: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“Special Edition – Next Saturday” McHenry Plaindealer 10 Aug. 1911: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“McHenry, Illinois” Sanborn Map. Jan. 1922: http://sanborn.umi.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.
“McHenry, Illinois” Sanborn Map. Jul. 1898/: http://sanborn.umi.com. Web. 15 Sep 2016.

The Flood of 1938

In July 1938, the McHenry area had some of the worst floods in its history. A huge storm on June 30th brought torrential rains The storm saturated the area and caused area rivers and lakes to swell. Damage and destruction to local fields, crops and buildings were due to the rivers flooding their banks. However, probably the worst casualty was to the area’s bridges.

 

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Flooding at Barnard Mill near Wonder Lake. The roads, fields, and some fencing are underwater. From the McHenry Plaindealer, 7 Jul 1938.
Rivers like the Fox and Nippersink, pounded the bridges that spanned them, damaging some and destroying others. Up to 13 bridges were damaged in some way and the estimates totaled approximately $300,000. Like the rest of the country, the area was in the midst of the Great Depression and assembling that kind of money wouldn’t be easy.
The new Johnsburg bridge (left), sitting next to its predecessor. Courtesy of the McHenry Plaindealer 15 Jun 1939.
Public officials for the McHenry County Road and Bridge Committee did have some options, such as applying for federal funds and raising money through public bonds. In September 1938, a special election was held to vote to get a grant from the federal government. If the public voted “yes”, the government offered to cover about $58,000, or 45% of the total of the $130,000 needed,  For the rest of the money, about $71,000,  a slight tax of 2 cents for every $100 in property assessment was also voted on by the public.  The election passed by a whopping 1,300 to 460. This was the first time that a bond issue had been voted on by the county. 
bridges
Of the thirteen damaged bridges, seven needed to be completely rebuilt. Greenwood alone lost four bridges. One bridge that crossed the Nippersink cost $25,000 to rebuild. Construction of some bridges started in August of 1938. Work was finished for all but two bridges by June of 1939. The citizens of Johnsburg and Greenwood acknowledged their new bridges with huge dedication ceremonies. By the end of the fall, all of the bridges were successfully rebuilt, thanks to the leadership of the McHenry County Road and Bridge Committee and the grant from the federal government.  

Sources

“May Cost $125,000 to the County” The Daily Sentinal (Woodstock) 2 Jul. 1938: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 17 Nov 2016.
“Cloudburst on Thursday Ends Heavy Rain” McHenry Plaindealer 7 Jul. 1938: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 4 Nov 2016.
“Seek Federal Aid Road And Bridge Repairs” McHenry Plaindealer 14 Jul. 1938: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 4 Nov 2016.
“Must Find A Way To Finance Bridge Problem” McHenry Plaindealer 4 Aug. 1938: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 4 Nov 2016.
“$130,000 Cost Estimated to Build Bridges” McHenry Plaindealer 11 Aug. 1938: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 4 Nov 2016.
“McHenry Bond Issue Election To Be Held Tues, Sept 6” McHenry Plaindealer 1 Sep. 1938: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 17 Nov 2016.
“To Be Erected Just South of Old Structure” McHenry Plaindealer 1 Sep. 1938: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 4 Nov 2016.
“$130,000 Bond Issue OK’d By Voters Tuesday” McHenry Plaindealer 8 Sep. 1938: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 4 Nov 2016.
“County Claims Thousands of Dollars Owing” McHenry Plaindealer 15 Sep. 1938: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 17 Nov 2016.
“Rain Delays Work On New State Bridge” McHenry Plaindealer 22 Sep. 1938: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 4 Nov 2016.
“Busy Session Held Tuesday at Woodstock” McHenry Plaindealer 17 Nov. 1938: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 4 Nov 2016.
“Greenwood – Special Correspondence to the Sentinal” The Daily Sentinal (Woodstock) 12 May 1939: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 17 Nov 2016.
“Community Club Makes Plans for a Big Celebration” McHenry Plaindealer 18 May 1939: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 17 Nov 2016.
“Work Is Completed On Seven County Bridges” McHenry Plaindealer 15 Jun. 1939: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 4 Nov 2016.

The 1907 McHenry Blues

Baseball was a small town’s game and many towns featured semi-professional clubs during the 1900’s.   McHenry was no exception. The baseball team the  McHenry Blues started in 1905 and played through 1909. The town was also  home to the McHenry Shamrocks who played from the early 1930s until the mid-1960s.

1907-blues
The Blues in 1907. Compliments of the McHenry Public Library collection.

Semi-Pro baseball was similar to today’s minor league baseball in that many players were hoping to make it to a professional team. Players back then didn’t make a lot of money and probably had a second job, but playing with the local team kept the dream of playing professionally alive. For the fans, it was great entertainment.  This era of baseball was also known as “townball”, due to the fact that most teams were financed by a local business or businesses. Sometimes other events were arranged the same day as the ballgame, such a dance or fundraiser.

On April 28, the Blues opened the season with 13-0 win over the Pekin Giants of Chicago. It took twelve innings to beat the Elgin Tigers 9-8. The following week was another blowout again with the Blues winning 12-2 against the Rock Island Athletics. The Blues even beat the Elgin Code of Honor team in June and the Waukegan city All-Stars in August. Overall , the Blues did very well for themselves. However, they had one huge problem.

wattles-subdivision-1908
Image of Wattles Subdivision, located  at Front & James, where the Blues played their games.

Even back then, baseball ran off of ticket sales. In the early 1900s the cost of attending a game was 25 cents for adults and 10 cents for children . If your attendance was too low, your team wouldn’t be able to make any money. Even worse, if they did too poorly they might not be able to pay their players and would have to cut their season short. That is exactly what happened to the Blues in 1907 when their poor ticket sales caused them to cancel the last eight games on their schedule. Again, this wasn’t due to poor performance, as they only lost one of their games. Sadly, this would happen to the team again in 1908, although the 1908 club wasn’t as good as its predecessor. Poor attendance seemed to affect many of the other local teams as well, which led to some to question as to whether the game was dying out. McHenry didn’t really have a baseball team with any continued success until the McHenry Shamrocks formed in the 1930s.

Please stay tuned for further historical updates on the famous McHenry Shamrocks baseball team appearing here in our local history blog in the Spring.

Sources

“Concerning Baseball” McHenry Plaindealer 12 Mar. 1907: 5. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“Will Have Team” McHenry Plaindealer 18 Apr. 1907: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“First Game Sunday” McHenry Plaindealer 25 Apr. 1907: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“A Victorious Opening” McHenry Plaindealer 2 May 1907: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“Takes Twelve Innings” McHenry Plaindealer 23 May 1907: 8. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“Baseball Sunday” McHenry Plaindealer 30 May 1907: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“McHenry Blues Win” McHenry Plaindealer 6 Jun. 1907: 8. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“Game Next Sunday” McHenry Plaindealer 13 Jun. 1907: 8. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“They All Look Alike” McHenry Plaindealer 20 Jun. 1907: 8. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“Baseball Sunday” McHenry Plaindealer 27 Jun. 1907: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“Elgin White Sox Lose” McHenry Plaindealer 4 Jul. 1907: 8. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“Terra Cotta Tigers Winners” McHenry Plaindealer 18 Jul. 1907: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“Baseball” McHenry Plaindealer 8 Aug. 1907: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“Pre-Labor Day Picnic” McHenry Plaindealer 22 Aug. 1907: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“Is Baseball Dying Out” McHenry Plaindealer 29 Aug. 1907: 6. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“Trounce Waukegan Team” McHenry Plaindealer 5 Sep. 1907: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“Shut Out North Ends” McHenry Plaindealer 26 Sep. 1907: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“Baseball Game and Benefit Dance” McHenry Plaindealer 10 Oct. 1907: 1. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“Team Next Summer?” McHenry Plaindealer 26 Dec. 1907: 8. Newspapers.com. Web. 18 Sep 2016.
“Johnsburgh Defeated” McHenry Plaindealer 10 Sep. 1908: 8. NEWSPAPERS.COM. WEB. 18 SEP 2016.